Florida DOT Gearing Up for Statewide EV Adoption

Although Florida trails other big states in government support for electric vehicle infrastructure, the Florida Department of Transportation is now taking a lead role in building out an EV recharging network, according to a new report.

[Photo courtesy of the Florida Governor’s Office.]

The Southern Alliance for Clean Energy and Atlas Public Policy recently published “Transportation Electrification in Florida,” a brief that makes the case that Florida’s government has not kept pace with its own citizens in transitioning to EV transportation. Floridians purchase 4 percent of all EVs in the country, but Florida’s government only spent $23.3 million on EV infrastructure, representing about 1 percent of all states’ spending, according to the report.

This has put Florida is in a “really unique situation” because it is second in the country in EV sales and number of chargers, but only 18th in per-capita sales and 30th in per capita chargers, according to Stan Cross, Electric Transportation Policy Director for SACE.

“What that means is that Florida runs the risk in getting behind in charging really quickly,” Cross said. “If numbers [of EV buyers] go up quickly, Florida can’t keep up.”

However, the Florida DOT is not only playing catch up, it is working to get ahead of the curve with a stated goal to “position Florida as a national leader in EV adoption and infrastructure,” according to a presentation to other agencies and stakeholders.

As a result, the agency is developing an EV charging infrastructure master plan for the state and preparing legislative initiatives to encourage even more EV usage. These actions were the result of the new Florida Essential Infrastructure Law that puts the Florida DOT and other state agencies in the EV business.

Right now, the agency is modeling location criteria for EV charging sites, formulating an implementation strategy, and forecasting future EV usage and its impact to the state’s Transportation Trust Fund – largely fueled by gasoline and diesel taxes. Florida DOT’s effort is comprehensive, including support of EV transit and school bus fleets and integration with hurricane and disaster evacuation plans.

“The [Florida] DOT is thinking through what some of the policy implications are for moving the needle, the principles that should drive the state’s thinking on this,” Cross said. “[They] have a lot to figure out, and they’ve put many of the right policy recommendations on the table.”

In a recent blog, Cross noted that many of the policies the Florida DOT is studying “are aligned with policy considerations being implemented successfully” in other states, including promoting EV usage throughout the state, supporting rural infrastructure development and study incentives to potential EV buyers and to utility companies to help build charging stations. Most of Florida DOT’s work is in the planning stages as it prepares to issue a status report with preliminary recommendations to the governor by December 1.

Connecticut DOT Helps Local Transit With EV Bus Purchases

The Connecticut Department of Transportation is helping “plug in” two all-electric buses into local transit routes in Bridgeport – with more on the way – as part of the agency’s effort to reduce greenhouse gas or GHG emissions across the state.

[Photo courtesy of the Connecticut Governor’s Office.]

The Connecticut DOT also is helping to finance charging stations, project management, and training for mechanics to maintain the new buses by tapping into Federal Transit Administration (FTA) 5307 Formula Funding, which helps cities and states with capital and operating costs for transportation-related planning.

Proterra manufactured those two all-electric battery-powered buses – the first ever deployed in Connecticut – which feature 440 kilowatt-hour (kWh) batteries, allowing them to operate up to 150 miles between charges. At a later date, Proterra plans to deliver three ZX5 model buses to that state; models equipped with 660 kWh batteries that can run up to 200 miles between charges.

“This is very much for us a test,” explained Doug Holcomb, general manager of Greater Bridgeport Transit (GBT). “We want to make sure the zero-emission buses work as well as a (diesel-powered) city bus.”

The environmental benefits of replacing diesel-engine buses with all-electric vehicles can be significant. Even after factoring in emissions from the electricity generated to run the buses, switching two diesel-engine buses to electric buses can reduce carbon dioxide emissions by about 450,000 pounds a year, according to GBT.

The start-up costs can be steep, however. The 40-foot electric battery buses cost about $200,000 more than their traditional diesel counterparts, a 125-kWh charger runs about $60,000, and mechanics need training on how to maintain those new buses. “It’s a whole different animal, from the monocoque body to the different components it has,” Holcomb said.

Yet GBT believes lower operating costs will balance the ledger over the long haul. Electricity costs for two electric buses are around $36,000 a year, compared to about $58,000 a year to fuel two diesel buses for the same number of miles, according to the agency. Plus, maintenance costs are expected to drop by about 30 percent because of fewer moving parts, fewer lubricants, and improved brake life.

Battery life may be affected by colder weather, Holcomb said, but GBT is installing heaters that don’t run off the main batteries to maximize miles.

Other state departments of transportation are also sponsoring a variety of electric bus initiatives.

The New York State Department of Transportation, for example, is providing $7 million in funding to support the deployment of 10 all-electric buses for the Rochester-Genesee Regional Transportation Authority’s Regional Transit Service or RTS fleet that serves more than 1.1 million New Yorkers in eight counties of the Finger Lakes Region.

“New York State continues to make smart, sustainable investments in our transportation systems that will result in a reduced carbon footprint across the Empire State benefiting generations to come,” explained Marie Therese Dominguez, commissioner of the New York State DOT, in an October 7 statement. “We are excited to lead the way in addressing our changing climate and supporting the electrification of public transit systems here in Rochester and across the state.”

The FTA also continues to provide state DOTs with funds to make further investments in electric buses and related systems. In June, the agency issued $130 million in grants via its Low- or No-Emission program that provided the Colorado Department of Transportation, Idaho Transportation Department, and Massachusetts Department of Transportation – among others – with funds to acquire and/or expand electric-powered buses for local transit fleets.

Rhode Island DOT Launches EV Recharging Project

The Rhode Island Department of Transportation will provide free access to electric vehicle (EV) recharging stations situated at two of its park and ride commuter lots as part of a pilot program to encourage and support broader use of EVs across the state.

[Above photo via WJAR.]

The program – operated by the Rhode Island DOT in conjunction with the Rhode Island Office of Energy Resources and National Grid – is offering free EV recharging via those two sites through the end of 2020 in order to evaluate energy “usage patterns” to help plan more recharging system deployments in the future.

Director Alviti Jr.; photo courtesy of
Rhode Island DOT

“Electric cars are becoming more common on our streets, and the commuter parking lots we own are a perfect test bench for us to evaluate the demand for this service,” noted Peter Alviti, Jr., Rhode Island DOT’s director, in a statement. “There are a number of barriers to electric car adoption, among them concerns about range and access to fast, convenient charging stations. These stations help alleviate those concerns.”

The charging stations – which cost $300,000 – feature 240-volt Level II and direct current fast charging or DCFC options. The agency said Level II chargers provide 25 miles of range per hour of charging, while the DCFC chargers provide approximately 250 miles of range in an hour of charging. Each park and ride lot recharger accommodates up to six cars charging on the Level II chargers and two cars using the DCFC fast chargers, the Rhode Island DOT noted.

The agency added that the Rhode Island Public Transit Authority services both of the lots hosting those rechargers, allowing electric car users to repower their vehicles while using transit service for work or school. The Rhode Island DOT emphasized that transit users should not use the DCFC fast chargers for extended periods, as they are more suited for use by travelers seeking a brief stop to recharge their vehicles while on long trips.

Analysis conducted by the Idaho National Laboratory using Nissan Leaf all-electric vehicles found that where recharging was fast, public stations were popular – as long as the price to do so is low. The INL report also noted DCFC fast chargers use increased when located near highway interstate exits; giving EV drivers “more confidence” to take longer trips, while local drivers could re-power quickly on days when recharging at home or work proved less convenient.

New California EV Rule Will Phase Out Diesel Trucks by 2045

The iconic image of a smoke-belching big rig growling down the highway will slowly fade into the California sunset, replaced by a smog-free electric vehicle (EV) gently humming down the road starting in 2024.

[Above photo from WikiMedia Commons.]

The California Air Resources Board unanimously approved the Advanced Clean Trucks regulation that requires manufacturers to begin transitioning from diesel trucks and vans to electric zero-emission trucks in 2024. By 2035, at least 40 percent of truck manufacturers’ sales would have to be EV trucks, and every new medium-duty and heavy-duty truck sold in the state would be a zero-emission vehicle by 2045.

The goal of the ruling is to reduce air pollution and help California meet federal air quality standards, “especially in the Los Angeles region and the San Joaquin Valley – areas that suffer the highest levels of air pollution in the nation,” according to a CARB news release.

Although trucking interests were mixed in their opinions of the new rule, environmental groups hailed it as a historic moment. The Sierra Club California said the ruling is “a win for the environment, air quality and the economy” and predicted it will “ensure a steady supply of zero-emission trucks.”

Photo courtesy of Caltrans

Whether it will ensure a steady supply of funding for Caltrans remains to be seen.

Although California leads the nation in EV ownership, EV owners do not pay fuel taxes – a main funding source for Caltrans and other state DOTs across the country. A new registration fee for model year 2020 and newer EVs is only projected to bring in $10.9 million this year, according to the 2020-2021 Caltrans budget.

However, agency officials added that another new fee – an annual assessment of up to $175 per EV – should bring total EV fees up to $50 billion over the next 10 years, with proceeds from EV registration and annual fees helping to pay for infrastructure projects.

By contrast, the 2020-2021 combined diesel excise and sales tax revenues are expected to bring Caltrans $2.2 billion – a number that will surely drop as diesel trucks fade away.

A similar “action plan” is to support broader deployment of EVs is being developed by 15 states and the District of Columbia. It aims to ramp up electrification of medium- and heavy-duty vehicles, including large pickup trucks and vans, delivery trucks, box trucks, school and transit buses and long-haul delivery trucks. In a joint memorandum of understanding issued in mid-July, that coalition aims to ensure that 100 percent of all new medium- and heavy-duty vehicle sales be zero emission vehicles by 2050 with an interim target of 30 percent zero-emission vehicle sales in those vehicle categories of vehicles by 2030.

Florida Taps VW Settlement Funds to Expand EV Infrastructure

Florida plans to invest $8.6 million to strengthen its electric vehicle or EV infrastructure – part of $166 million worth of funds coming to the state from the Volkswagen (VW) Mitigation Trust Fund established in 2017 established between VW and the U.S. government to resolve claims that the automaker violated the Clean Air Act by knowingly selling diesel-powered vehicles that did not meet Environmental Protection Agency mobile source emission standards.

“This long-term investment in electric vehicle charging infrastructure is a win for our state on multiple levels,”noted Governor Ron DeSantis (R) in a statement. “Not only will these charging stations promote reduced emissions and better air quality, they will also improve mobility and safety for the ever-increasing number of Floridians that drive electric cars.”

“The addition of these electric vehicle charging stations will not only keep pace with the dramatic increase in the use of these vehicles, but also help to reduce emissions and improve mobility across Florida’s transportation system,” added Kevin Thibault, secretary of the Florida Department of Transportation.

That $8.6 million will go towards installing 74 additional direct current or DC “fast chargers” statewide. Combined with the chargers Florida DOT is currently installing along the Florida Turnpike, a total of 104 DC fast chargers will be installed along over 1,200 miles of highway, covering the most traveled corridors in the state – an approximately 50 percent statewide increase in publicly available DC charging stations.

The governor’s office added that a total of $25 million from Florida’s VW settlement funds has been set aside specifically to install EV charging stations and that approximately $16.4 million dollar remains to install more charging stations throughout the state.

Photo credit: Florida Department of Management Services

Nevada DOT to Play Role in Clean Cars Nevada Initiative

Governor Steve Sisolak (D) announced a new initiative in mid-June that crafts new regulations to spur the broader adoption of more low- and zero-emission electric-powered passenger cars and trucks across Nevada beginning in 2024.

[Above photo courtesy of the Nevada DOT]

“Transportation is the number one source of greenhouse gases in Nevada, and therefore a top priority for addressing climate change statewide,” explained Bradley Crowell, director of the Nevada department of conservation and natural resources, in a statement.

“To move Nevada’s climate future forward, we must reduce pollution from the cars and trucks we drive as well as modernize our urban planning efforts through transit-oriented development and electrification of our transportation infrastructure,” he added. “Establishing Clean Car Standards will help address the harmful impacts of climate change stemming from vehicle tailpipe pollution, while simultaneously advancing a stronger, more resilient economy for Nevada.”

The Nevada Department of Transportation is already playing a role in reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions across the state and will help with public outreach efforts in regards to the new Clean Car effort, noted Meg Ragonese, the agency’s public information officer.

“The Nevada Department of Transportation is partnering with the Nevada Department of Conservation and Natural Resources and Nevada Governor’s Office of Energy in efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the transportation sector,” she explained via email. “The Nevada DOT is also unveiling an internal working group to develop strategies and policies to reduce GHG emissions in our operations to meet state greenhouse gas reduction targets.”

The agency will also continue to develop further innovations to reduce greenhouse gas emissions through its internal working group, Ragonese added. 

The Nevada DOT is already working to promote cleaner transportation throughout the state through several other initiatives as well.

For example, in both Las Vegas and Reno, the agency and utility provider NV Energy hosted guest drives of various electric vehicle brands to provide state residents an opportunity to get behind the wheel to learn more about electric vehicle technology and how it could make their personal transportation more sustainable and environmentally friendly. 

Nevada is also a part of the U.S. Climate Alliance and is therefore accelerating policies to reduce carbon and promote clean energy, with reducing transportation-related GHGs within the state a top priority. Consequently, the Nevada DOT said it is working closely with local government partners such as Washoe County to become one of the leading states pursuing a statewide Clean Cities designation through the U.S. Department of Energy. 

Concurrently, the agency is part of the Nevada Electric Highway effort that seeks to link the state with utility and private partners to expand Nevada’s electric vehicle infrastructure at strategic locations along state highways. The Nevada DOT noted it is working to reduce “range anxiety” among motorists by establishing more re-charging stations to ensure electric and hybrid vehicles have enough power to safely reach their destinations.

Ultimately, the Nevada DOT said those efforts are part of a statewide push to keep Nevada “at the forefront” of national policy development and coordination to ensure that all emerging transportation technologies, including reduction of GHGs via vehicles, can be integrated effectively and to the best advantage of the state.

FDOT to take lead on EV infrastructure planning

The Florida Department of Transportation is about to be one of the biggest electric vehicle (EV) market cheerleaders in the country.

The Essential State Infrastructure law signed by Governor Ron DeSantis (R) on June 9 gives Florida DOT the central role in developing a “master plan” to encourage EV usage and to develop strategies to build more charging stations throughout the sunshine state. The law, which goes into effect on July 1, also calls on the agency to plan, design and build staging areas for public emergency provisions along the Florida Turnpike system.

The EV portion of the law mandates Florida DOT to collaborate with public and private stakeholders, come up with legislative recommendations, plus write and delivery its “master plan” to the governor and legislature by July 1, 2021.

Photos courtesy Florida DOT

The agency will also work closely with several state agencies – including the Public Service Commission, Department of Environmental Protection, Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services as well as power companies and other stakeholders – to establish that EV infrastructure, noted Beth Frady, Florida DOT’s communications director.

The impetus behind the bipartisan legislation is the impact of fossil fuel emissions on Florida’s air quality. According to the new law, “a significant portion of the carbon dioxide emissions in this state are produced by the transportation sector. Electric vehicles can help reduce these emissions, thereby helping to reduce the impact of climate change on this state.”

Susan Glickman, Florida director of the Southern Alliance for Clean Energy, applauded the new law, calling it part of “the evolution in transportation, as it’s been recognized that fossil fuels drive emissions.”

She added that “this is a big step forward in putting in place the kind of charging infrastructure that will give people confidence that buying an EV is doable.”

Florida DOT statistics show there are approximately 60,000 all-electric battery electric vehicles, or BEVs, and another 60,000 plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) registered in Florida. Even though that makes Florida one of the top five states in the number of EVs registered, EVs still comprise less than 1 percent of all vehicles registered in the state.

Although EV sales are increasing nationally as consumers look for cleaner transportation, a dearth of public charging stations has been a stumbling block for manufacturers to reach beyond drivers who rarely venture far from their home-based chargers. The expense and relative low retune on investment of the charging stations have driven some states to cobble together coalitions of utility companies, non-profit groups, government agencies, manufacturers and consumers to recommend rebate programs, cost-sharing partnerships and grant programs for infrastructure development.

Florida DOT’s Frady said the agency already had been “studying and analyzing” EV infrastructure issues before Gov. DeSantis signed the Essential State Infrastructure law – working on a plan to add new units to existing charging stations and to add new stations at service plazas along the Florida Turnpike toll road system. The new law, however, will now expand EV infrastructure planning to the non-tolled portions of the state highway system.

One main component of the Essential State Infrastructure law directs FDOT to develop staging areas along the Florida Turnpike system for “staging supplies for prompt provision of assistance to the public in a declared state of emergency.” The law says the staging areas will be used for storing emergency supplies, such as water, fuel, generators, vehicles and equipment to aid in evacuations, emergency response and restoration of services. Those “staging areas” could also could be used during nonemergency times for commercial motor vehicle parking or other uses.

In choosing them, though, the new law said Florida DOT must give “priority consideration” to rural counties in the Multiuse Corridor of Regional Economic Significance program, a state effort to stimulate the economies of counties of less than 200,000 population.

New Jersey DOT’s Role in State Transportation Electrification Plan

New Jersey Governor Phil Murphy (D) has set forth an aggressive goal of achieving 100 percent clean energy by 2050 for the state – and the New Jersey Department of Transportation will play a key role in helping attain that goal.

The agency is part of a broad statewide transportation electrification effort in line with the Rejoining the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative or RGGI; a multi-state, market-based program that establishes a regional cap on carbon dioxide or CO2 emissions.

In mid-April, the governor announced that RGGI auction proceeds will provide $80 million each year to programs that reduce greenhouse gas emissions, with a new, more all-inclusive Energy Master Plan outlining several state investment strategies that aim to electrify New Jersey’s transportation sector. 

Along with the Master Plan, the RGGI Strategic Funding Plan details how to move toward the goal of a greener transportation system. New Jersey’s plan for its RGGI revenue is designed to support legislation signed in January that calls for the state to have 330,000 registered electric vehicles or EVs by 2025 and 2 million by 2040. It also plans for 400 fast charging stations at 200 locations along major highways and communities by 2025.

To that end, the New Jersey DOT and several other state agencies –  NJ TRANSIT, the New Jersey Board of Public Utilities, the Department of Environmental Protection, the Department of Community Affairs, the Department of Labor and Workforce Development, and the Economic Development Authority – will work together within their respective areas to achieve the RGGI’s strategic goals. 

The specific strategies laid out for the New Jersey DOT within the plan include:

  • Promoting the use of the Logo Sign Program and Tourist-Oriented Directional Signing or “LOGOS” program to display the locations of EV charging stations on blue state highway exit signs. The state will also work collaboratively with local governments on transportation planning and land use/housing planning that will enable multi-modal transportation and EV-ready infrastructure.
  • Working to prioritize multi-modal accommodations in projects located in low- and moderate-income and environmental justice communities to promote more pedestrian and bicycle traffic as those two modes are part of the RGGI’s emission reduction strategies.
  • Looking at re-evaluating “Level of Service” metrics that measure the quality of transportation services and traffic flow and develop plans to mitigate congestion and reduce idling time for vehicles. 
  • Working with local governments to promote implementation of “Complete Streets” policies in municipalities, possibly with additional grants and incentives. As part of these efforts, the New Jersey DOT and NJ TRANSIT will continue to lead a multi-agency “Smart Growth” program called the Transit Village Initiative, which helps municipalities redevelop or revitalize their downtowns into dense communities within a half-mile of transit centers.
  • Deploying Transportation Systems Management & Operations or TSMO strategies to relieve road congestion through signal optimization technology; an effort funded via the federal Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality program to make traffic patterns more efficient and further reduce idling.

Yet even as New Jersey begins moving towards electrifying its transportation sector, the unintended consequences of funding shortages must also be considered.

The draft fiscal year 2020 New Jersey Transportation Capital Program, which funds both the New Jersey DOT and NJ TRANSIT for a total of $3.679 billion, depends on motor fuels tax revenues for funding – already significantly reduced due to the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. As New Jersey encourages use of electric-powered vehicles, the state is also considering a replacement for lost fuel tax revenue and is participating in the I-95 Coalition Mileage Based User Fee study to see how such fees would affect different communities and how they would be collected.

Colorado DOT taking a lead role in state’s EV plans

Colorado is embarking on an ambitious program to have 940,000 electric vehicles (EVs) registered by 2030, and the Colorado Department of Transportation is tasked with helping to lead the charge within the department and throughout the state.

The Colorado Electric Vehicle Plan 2020 also looks beyond 2030, setting a “long-term goal of 100 percent of light-duty vehicles being electric and 100% of medium- and heavy-duty vehicles being zero emission.” The plan taps Colorado DOT as one of the main players to develop the state’s strategy of reducing greenhouse gas emissions by replacing internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles with EVs.

According to Sophie Shulman, the agency’s chief of innovative mobility, the Colorado DOT’s role in the state’s EV plan is two-fold. First, it must begin replacing its current fleet of ICE vehicles to zero emission vehicles (ZEV) whenever practical. The second – and bigger – task for the department is to work on several fronts to increase ZEV use among private, commercial, and transit entities and to support further growth of the state’s EV charging infrastructure.

The plan’s goals “complement and build upon our existing work in the field of vehicle electrification, such as our management of transit electrification grants, our planning coordination through the public-private Freight Advisory Council and our support of charging infrastructure and vehicle grant programs,” Shulman said.

While Colorado’s 28,722 EVs on the road represent a 25 percent increase from August 2019, the state will have to consistently post a 40 percent annual increase to hit the 940,000 EV mark by 2030. In addition, the Colorado DOT and other agencies have until 2021 to “establish timelines, identify strategies and dedicate sufficient resources” to convert the entire state transit fleet to an all-ZEV fleet by 2050, with at least 1,000 ZEV transit vehicles on the road by 2030.

An added challenge is that the electrification of medium-duty and heavy-duty vehicles, which make up the vast majority of transit vehicles, has lagged behind the development of passenger EVs for a host of reasons, including battery issues, range problems and cost barriers.

However, a recent report from Atlas Public Policy determined that purchasing such EV vehicles can be cost-effective if low-cost charging and vehicle incentives remain in play.

Developing strategies and plans for EV infrastructure and purchasing incentives also are on Colorado DOT’s to-do list as well, noted Shulman. She explained that the agency has “a long history” of supporting EV incentive programs and charging projects, including the agency’s work on REV West, a multi-state effort to build an EV charging network through the Intermountain West states. The EV plans are “ambitious and will push us further than ever before,” Shulman added. “We are excited by this challenge and eager to partner with industry, state, and local agencies and Coloradans to make the plan’s vision a reality.”

WSDOT: Incentives Key to Expanding EV Usage

Washington state has zipped beyond its goal of having 50,000 plug-in electric vehicles (EVs) registered by 2020, thanks in part to the Washington State Department of Transportation, which plays a leading role in developing EV infrastructure and encouraging EV ownership.

By the end of 2019, drivers in Washington had registered 53,307 plug-in EVs, representing a 24 percent year-to-year increase and a 222 percent increase in just four years. The number of publicly available charging ports also has increased since 2015, from 949 to nearly 3,000 at the end of 2019, according to the WSDOT Gray Notebook.

WSDOT was an early advocate of EVs and developed “the first and most robust highway corridor in the nation in 2012 for electric vehicle charging,” explained Tonia Buell, the agency’s project development manager.

Photo courtesy WSDOT

More recently, the department created the Zero Emission Vehicle Infrastructure Partnerships Program or “ZEVIPP” for short, which provides about $1 million a year in grants to non-profit organizations, government entities, transit agencies and tribes to build charging locations near highways exits along major routes in Washington. Grant recipients must have public and private-sector partners, and because the grant covers only part of the project cost, the partners usually provide the remaining financing, Buell said.

Funding for ZEVIPP comes from a $75 annual state registration fee for plug-in electric and hybrid vehicles. Part of that fee also supports sales tax incentives to grow EV ownership, which makes building charging infrastructure a better investment for private companies. The parallel funding to promote EV ownership and EV infrastructure development is critical because each element relies on the other, she noted.

“People want to know they’re able to charge their vehicle whenever they need it, so to have that growth in EV ownership, you have to develop the charging infrastructure,” Buell emphasized.

WSDOT practices what it preaches, having replaced 23 percent of its gas and diesel passenger vehicles with EVs. Washington Governor Jay Inslee (D) has taken it a step further, ordering all state agencies to purchase EVs instead of internal combustion engine vehicles if the EV option is available.

Having top-level buy-in and leadership is “a very critical component to making this work” for any state DOT that wants to develop a strong EV program, Buell explained. Governments will have to make an investment in promoting EV ownership and developing the infrastructure, at least until EVs become more ubiquitous. “I think the tipping point will be when EVs are around 15 percent of all vehicles; right now, we’re at about 1 percent,” she said. “That’s going to happen when the purchase price of the EVs is equivalent to internal combustion engine vehicles, and we won’t need the purchase incentives.”